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Now that you have found sources and evaluated them, you need to use them in your assignment. This page will discuss how to use direct quotes, paraphrasing, and summarizing in your writing. 

Direct Quotations •	A quotation is a direct, word-for-word excerpt from another source. It is denoted by putting the words inside quotation marks. •	Sometimes, you may quote a full sentence, but more often you will lead into a quote using your own introductory language. These transitionary, or signal, phrases allow you to transition smoothly between your own language and the words of a source. When to Use •	An author has phrased an idea in a way that isn’t possible to rephrase easily. •	You want to use a particular phrase to prove a point or make an emotional argument. •	There’s something about the author’s specific words that you want to discuss or analyze (e.g., a work of literature, a political speech, a phrase in a law or policy). What to Avoid •	Too many quotes  o	You want your reader to hear your own voice. •	Overly Long Quotes  o	Quotes should support your argument rather than form your argument. •	Taking quotes out of context Paraphrasing •	Paraphrasing involves phrasing the idea of another person in your own words.  •	You will preserve the meaning of the original text, but use your own words to express the idea. •	You do not need to use quotation marks, but you still must cite the source—not citing is plagiarism.  When to Use •	Use paraphrasing so that the reader can get a sense of your own voice or ideas. •	When the original source has valuable insights, but for your purposes would benefit from being rephrased in a way that makes them clearer or flow more naturally with the rest of your writing (being careful not to change the original meaning). What to Avoid •	It’s not enough to change one or two words or the order of phrases. To avoid this, try looking away from the original source to reword the main idea. •	If you end up using almost exactly the same words, it may be better to quote the source. •	Don’t lose track of where each idea is from. You are still obligated to cite another’s ideas. Summarizing •	A summary is a brief (shorter and less specific) overview of a larger idea or section of text.  •	A summary may be a succinct description of an idea from one source, or a synthesis of related ideas from multiple sources. •	Paraphrasing is roughly the same length as the original, while summarizing provides the main ideas of a source but does not get into the details. •	You still need to cite ideas from other sources. If you’re summarizing multiple sources, be specific when you cite.  When to Use •	When the main ideas of a text or selection of texts is significant, but the specifics are not needed. •	When you are synthesizing ideas from multiple sources. •	When making a broad argument in a paper, or in a short piece where you don’t have space to use details of a specific argument. What to Avoid  •	It’s important not to lose the intent of a source. You should not omit key information that would change the message the source originally conveyed.  •	Are you including enough detail for your reader to appreciate your point, or would your argument benefit from additional detail by paraphrasing more specific ideas or quoting from a source?

 Watch the Video for More

Check out the video below from the UNC Writing Center for more explanations on how we cite information.

Why We Cite Sources

Scholarship as Conversation

Citing sources creates an academic conversation. Articles are the messages conveying new ideas, and the citations are how scholars keep track of the previous messages in the conversation.

Intellectual Property

Respecting another's hard work and intellectual output is ethical behavior, but it also benefits you if a person references your work in the future.

Avoid Plagiarism

Plagiarism is presenting the words, ideas, or work of another as if they were your own. It can include using direct quotes without attributing them to the person who said or wrote them, and it can also include paraphrasing (stating in your own words) the ideas of another person without acknowledging that the idea belongs to someone else. Plagiarism is a serious academic offense that can have severe consequences in a person's academic and professional life.

Remember Longwood's Honor Creed: We shall not lie, cheat, or steal, nor tolerate those who do. 

 Watch the Video for More

Check out the video below from the UNC Writing Center for more explanations on why we cite information.

Gathering Information for Citations

How you cite information in your paper is important, but before you start you need to understand what type of information should be cited and to gather the needed information from each source that you use as you go along so that you don't have to go back and find it later.

The most commonly used citation styles are APA, MLA, and Chicago, although there are many others that are used for certain subjects or circumstances. Your professor will tell you which style to use for an assignment.

To fulfill the purposes for citing information, your citations need to be accurate and complete, and you will usually need to gather the following information:

Books

Author, Title, Date, Publisher, Publisher's City, Page Numbers

Articles

Journal title, Article title, Author, Volume number, Issue number, Date, Page numbers

Web Pages

URL, Author or organizational author, Title, Date (if given), Date you accessed it (for some citation styles)

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Citation Generators

Citation Generators are not fool proof. Always double-check any computer generated citation for punctuation, capitalization, and style. Citations generated from the websites Purdue OWL, EasyBib, Zotero, or Cite This For Me can include errors. Even if you used the "Cite" button from a library database, you still need to double-check the citation. 

APA 7th Edition Citation Quick Guide

Common Reference List Examples

Book

Lastname, X. (Year). Title in italics. Publisher Name. DOI (if applicable). 

example: 

Jones, M.A. (2014). Zombies in popular culture: A history. Longwood University Press.

Article in Electronic Journal

Lastname, X X. & Lastname, Y.Y. (Year). Article title. Journal Title, volume(issue), pages. DOI.

example with DOI:

Baniya, S., & Weech, S. (2019). Data and experience design: Negotiating community-oriented digital research with service-learning. Purdue Journal of Service-Learning and International Engagement, 6(1), 11–16. https://doi.org/10.5703/1288284316979

example without DOI (use stable URL): 

Denny, H., Nordlof, J., & Salem, L. (2018). "Tell me exactly what it was that I was doing that was so bad": Understanding the needs and expectations of working-class students in writing centers. Writing Center Journal, 37(1), 67–98. https://www.jstor.org/stable/26537363

Website

With Author: Lastname, X.X. OR Organization Name. (Year, Month Date). Title of page. Site Name. URL

With no Author: Title of page. (Year, Month Date). Site name. Retrieved Month Date, Year, from URL

example: 

Price, D. (2018, March 23). Laziness does not exist. Medium. https://humanparts.medium.com/laziness-does-not-exist-3af27e312d01

example with no author:

Tuscan white bean pasta. (2018, February 25). Budgetbytes. Retrieved March 18, 2020, from https://www.budgetbytes.com/tuscan-white-bean-pasta/

Common In-text Citation Examples 

In text citations can be parenthetical at the end of a sentence. 

(Lastname, Year).

example: Falsely balanced news coverage can distort the public's perception of expert consensus on an issue (Jackson, 2012).

In text citations can also occur within the narrative. 

example: Jackson (2012) noted the dangers of falsely balanced news coverage. 

Unrecoverable sources, such as personal communications, interviews, and quotes from research participants, are only cited in-text. They are not included in the reference list. 

example: (T. Nguyen, personal communication, February 24, 2020)

Recommended APA Resources 

Chicago 17th Edition Quick Citation Guide

Common Notes & Bibliography Examples

In Chicago's Note Bibliography style, you will cite your source with either an endnote or a footnote (note) in the text of your paper and in the bibliography at the end of your paper. The two citations will have most of the same information, but be in a slightly different format from the citation in your bibliography. Notably:

1) In the note, the first author's name is written firstname lastname, while in the bibliography, this is inverted, so that the first author's name is written lastname, firstname.

2) The note includes the page number that contains the information being referenced in the paper; the bibliography instead has the inclusive page numbers for the whole article.

Book

Note: Firstname Lastname, Title of Book (City of  publication: Publisher, Year), page number.

example: Richard Wilbur, The Poems of Richard Wilbur (New York: Harcourt, Brace & World, 1963), 52.

Bibliography: Lastname, Firstname. Title of Book. City of Publication: Publisher, Year.

example: Wilbur, Richard. The Poems of Richard Wilbur. New York: Harcourt, Brace, & World, 1963.

 

Journal article (from a library database)

Note: Firstname Lastname and Firstname Lastname, "Article Title," Journal Title vol#, no. #. (Year): page#, accessed date, doi: 10.21222/10111

example: Carlton Leroy Wright and Christine Gangelhoff. "Cultural Identity in Bahamian Art Music: The Expression of Four Bahamian Composers." International Journal Of Bahamian Studies 19, no. 2. (2013): 72, accessed November 11, 2015, doi: 10.15362/ijbs.v19i2.189.
 

Bibliography: Lastname, Firstname and Firstname Lastname. "Article Title."Journal Title vol#, no. #. (Year): p-p. Accessed date. doi: 10.21222/10111

example: Wright, Carlton Leroy, and Christine Gangelhoff. "Cultural Identity in Bahamian Art Music: The Expression of Four Bahamian Composers." International Journal Of Bahamian Studies 19, no. 2 (2013): 70-79. Accessed November 11, 2015. doi: 10.15362/ijbs.v19i2.189.

Website

Website citations can often be made simply by mentioning the site in the text of a paper (According to the American Cancer Society's website...) and including a corresponding note. If a full bibliographic citation is needed, use the format below.

Note: "Title of Website," Author/Organizaton, last modified/access date, URL.

example: "Cancer Screening Guidelines," American Cancer Society, last modified October 20, 2015, http://www.cancer.org/healthy/findcancerearly/cancerscreeningguidelines/american-cancer-society-guidelines-for-the-early-detection-of-cancer.

Bibliography: Lastname, Firstname/Organization name. "Title of Website." Last modified/Access date. URL.

example:  American Cancer Society. "Cancer Screening Guidelines." Last modified October 20, 2015. http://www.cancer.org/healthy/findcancerearly/cancerscreeningguidelines/american-cancer-society-guidelines-for-the-early-detection-of-cancer.

*formats are adapted from theOWL at Purdue's Chicago Sty;e Guide: https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/717/03/

Common Author Date Examples 

Book

Bibliography: Lastname, Firstname. Year. Title of Book. City of Publication: Publisher.

example: Wilbur, Richard. 1963. The Poems of Richard Wilbur. New York: Harcourt, Brace, & World.

In-text citation: (Lastname Year, pp)

example: (Wilbur 1963, 18)

Journal article (from a library database)

Bibliography: Lastname, Firstname and Firstname Lastname. Year. "Article Title."Journal Title vol# (no. #): p-p. doi: 10.21222/10111

example: Wright, Carlton Leroy, and Christine Gangelhoff. 2013. "Cultural Identity in Bahamian Art Music: The Expression of Four Bahamian Composers." International Journal Of Bahamian Studies 19 (2): 70-79. doi: 10.15362/ijbs.v19i2.189.

In-text citation: (Lastname Year, pp)

example: (Wright and Gangelhoff 2013, 71-72)

Website

Website citations can often be made simply by mentioning the site in the text of a paper (According to the American Cancer Society's website...) and including a corresponding note. If a full bibliographic citation is needed, use the format below.

Bibliography: Lastname, Firstname/Organization name. Year. "Title of Website." Last modified/Access date. URL.

example:  American Cancer Society. 2015. "Cancer Screening Guidelines." Last modified October 20. http://www.cancer.org/healthy/findcancerearly/cancerscreeningguidelines/american-cancer-society-guidelines-for-the-early-detection-of-cancer.

In-text citation: (Lastname/Organization Year)

example: (American Cancer Society 2015)

Recommended Chicago Resources 

MLA 9th Edition Citation Quick Guide

Common Works Cited Page Examples

Book,
Single Author

Garcia Marquez, Gabriel. Love in the Time of Cholera. Vintage, 1988.     

Book,
Two Authors

Casell, Kay Ann, and Uma Hiremath. Reference and Information Services in the 21st Century: An Introduction. Neal-Schuman, 2004.

(NOTE: Authors should be listed in the order they are listed on the title page.)

Book,
More than two Authors

Robbins, Chandler S., et al. Birds of North America: A Guide to Field Identification. Golden, 1966.

Book,
with Translator or other contributors

Homer. The Odyssey. Translated by Robert Fagles, Viking, 1996.

Here are other common descriptions: Adapted by, Directed by, Edited by, Illustrated by, Introduction by, Narrated by, Performance by.

A work (e.g., essay, short story) in an anthology or compilation.

Kimball, Jean. "Growing Up Together: Joyce and Psychoanalysis, 1900-1922." Joyce through the Ages: A Nonlinear View, edited by Michael Patrick Gillespie, UP of Florida, 1999, pp. 25-45.

Book,
Later Edition

Blamires, Harry. The New Bloomsday Book: A Guide through Ulysses. 3rd ed., Routledge, 1996.

Article in an Online Database

Hannah, Daniel K. "The Private Life, the Public Stage: Henry James in Recent Fiction." Journal of Modern Literature, vol.30, no. 3, Jan. 2007, pp. 70-94. JSTOR, https://doi.org/10.1353/mod.2016.0011.

NOTE: use either the provided DOI or a provided permalink.  Do not use both.

Article in Print Journal

Hannah, Daniel K. "The Private Life, the Public Stage: Henry James in Recent Fiction." Journal of Modern Literature, vol.30, no.3, 2007, pp. 70-94.

Article (Web Page) on a Web Site

Farkas, Meredith. "Tips for Being a Great Blogger (and a Good Person)." Information Wants to Be Free, 19 July 2011, meredith.wolfwater.com/wordpress/2011/07/19/tips-for-being-a-great-blogger-and-good-person/. 

Note: When including a URL, omit the http:// and https://

Website (Whole site)

Farkas, Meredith. Information Wants to Be Free. Jun. 2015, meredith.wolfwater.com.

YouTube Video

"Dog Turns Roomba Off." YouTube, uploaded by ilovetobamom, 28 Dec. 2016, www.youtube.com/watch?v=ei5H-wd3BIU.

Tweet

Donald Trump [@realDonaldTrump]. "Wow, the Fake News media did everything in its power to make Republican Healthcare victory look as bad as possible. Far better than Ocare!" Twitter, 5 May 2017, https://twitter.com/realDonaldTrump/status/860635815277453313.

Television Show on Streaming Platform

"A Fish Out of Water." Directed by John Smith. Family Guy, season 3, episode 10, Fox Broadcasting Company, 19 September 2001. Hulu app.

Common In Text Citation Examples

Author's Name in Text (Paraphrase):

Posnock is quick to point out that Pater believes in the autonomy of the self (181). 

Author's Name In Reference (Paraphrase):

Pater believes in the autonomy of the self (Posnock 181).

Author's Name In Text (with Quote):

Posnock is quick to point out that Pater believes in the autonomy of the self, the “individual in isolation” (181).

Author's Name In Reference (with Quote):

Pater believes in the autonomy of the self, the "individual in isolation" (Posnock 181).

Author's Name In Text, with only part of the sentence referencing the author's ideas.

Just as Pater summons the reader to live by stating, “For our chance lies in expanding that interval [between life and death], in getting as many pulsations as possible into a given time” (153), so, too, does Henry James charge Milly. 

Note: Try to place page numbers at natural pauses. This usually happens at the end of the sentence. However, if you are making your own, unique point in part of the sentence (as here), it may not.
Brackets are used to explain words referenced prior to the quote in the passage.

Author's Name In Reference, with only part of the sentence referencing the author's ideas.

Milly must squeeze in ". . . as many pulsations as possible into a given time" (Pater 153).

A Quote longer than 4 lines.

(This example with author's name in text)

In his letter to Gosse, Henry James addresses and imagines Pater’s continuing

potency throughout time:

 

He reminds me, in the disturbed night of our actual literature, of one of those

 

lucent matchboxes which you place . . . near the candle, to show you, in the

 

darkness, where you can strike a light:  he shines in the uneasy gloom

 

—vaguely, and has a phosphorescence . . . . he is not of the little day—but

 

of the longer time. (293)

 

Thus James continues to play with notions of temporality.

 

NOTES: Line spacing should be consistent throughout the paper, including block quotations.  Indent quotes that are longer than 4 lines within the text. There is no need to place them in quotation marks. Include the page number and author (if not in text) in parentheses at the end.

When 2 or more works by the same author are included in the Works Cited page

Mead puts forth a more permeable social self unlike James's more or less rigid "concrete particular I's and you's" (Principles 226).

Mead puts forth a more permeable social self unlike the more or less rigid "concrete particular I's and you's" (James, Principles 226).

NOTE: Include a partial title so that the reader knows which one is referred to on the Works Cited page.

When a work is listed by title on the Works Cited page

They aimed to prove the "essential goodness of humanity" ("Transcendentalism" 46).

Recommended MLA Resources